Which of the following is true about angina pectoris?a. Angina is typically substernal and may radiate to the left upper extremity
Angina pectoris is the pain or discomfort caused by myocardial ischemia and is typically substernal and may radiate to the left upper extremity, left neck, or epigastrium. The variety of presentations can make myocardial ischemia difficult to diagnose. Characteristics of chest pain that make myocardial ischemia less likely include: pleuritic chest pain, pain reproducible by movement or palpation, or brief episodes lasting only seconds. Typical angina is relieved by rest and/or use of sublingual nitroglycerin. Differential diagnoses to be considered include, but are not limited to, musculoskeletal pain, pulmonary disorders, esophageal spasm, pericarditis, aortic dissection, gastroesophageal reflux, neuropathic pain, and anxiety.