The most common delayed complication following carotid endarterectomy is:A) Arteriovenous fistulae
Complications of carotid endarterectomy include central or regional neurologic deficits or bleeding with an expanding neck hematoma. An acute change in mental status or the presence of localized neurologic deficit requires an immediate return to the operating room (OR). An expanding hematoma may warrant emergent airway intubation and subsequent transfer to the OR for control of hemorrhage. Intraoperative anticoagulation with heparin during carotid surgery makes bleeding a postoperative risk. Other complications include arteriovenous fistulae, pseudoaneurysms, and infection, all of which are treated surgically. Intraoperative hypotension during manipulation of the carotid bifurcation can occur and is related to increased tone from baroreceptors that reflexly cause bradycardia. Should hypotension occur when manipulating the carotid bifurcation, an injection of 1% lidocaine solution around this structure should attenuate this reflexive response. The most common delayed complication following carotid endarterectomy remains myocardial infarction. The possibility of a postoperative myocardial infarction should be considered a cause oflabile blood pressure and arrhythmias in high-risk patients.