All of the following increase the risk for tracheal stenosis EXCEPT:a. Age over 70 years
Intubation-related risk factors include prolonged intubation; high tracheostomy through the first tracheal ring or cricothyroid membrane; transverse rather than vertical incision on the trachea; oversized tracheostomy tube; prior tracheostomy or intubation; and traumatic intubation. Stenosis is also more common in older patients, in females, after radiation, or after excessive corticosteroid therapy, and in the setting of concomitant diseases such as autoimmune disorders, severe reflux disease, or obstructive sleep apnea and the setting of severe respiratory failure. However, even a properly placed tracheostomy can lead to tracheal stenosis because of scarring and local injury. Mild ulceration and stenosis are frequently seen after tracheostomy removal. Use of the smallest tracheostomy tube possible, rapid downsizing, and a vertical tracheal incision minimize the risk for posttracheostomy stenosis.