Concerning leech therapy used to salvage venously congested tissues, which of the following is false?
Augmentin® is the most effective prophylactic antibiotic. B is false. Aeromonas is a gram negative bacillus which is a well reported cause of infection following leech therapy. Aeromonas spp. strains resistant to Augmentin have been reported in several papers in the literature whereas fluoroquinolones seem to be consistently active. Recent microbiological studies have shown that the gastro-intestinal microbiota differs amongst the European medicinal leeches (Hirudo verbana, orientalis and medicinalis). Bacteria isolated from the leech include Aeromonas veronii, rikenella and Morganella morganii.
1. Whitaker IS, Kamya C, Azzopardi EA, Graf J, Kon M, Lineaweaver WC. Preventing infective complications following leech therapy: is practice keeping pace with current research? Microsurgery 2009; Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print].
When vein grafts are used to bridge intra-arterial defects:
The rupture rate of silicone breast implants is approximately:
50% at 12 years. This is the ‘traditional’ rate quoted 1. However, many of these were older generation implants. More recent papers/data suggest a number closer to 10% at 10 years. Readers are recommended to reappraise the future literature, and hence the validity of this answer.
1. Robinson OG Jr, Bradley EL, Wilson DS. Analysis of explanted silicone implants: a report of 300 patients. Ann Plast Surg 1995; 34(1): 1-6.
The following statements concerning hyaluronic acid are true except:
It is a major constituent of Radiesse®. C is false. Hyaluronan, also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate, is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan found in many tissues of the body, such as skin, cartilage, and the vitreous humour. Perlane® contains a much higher concentratation of hyaluronic acid than Restylane®. Radiesse comprises calcium hydroxyapatite particles. Hyaluronic acid can be found as oral preparations in health food shops and marketed commonly for arthritic ailments.
The four zones within the capsule surrounding an expander were described by:
Tissue expansion was popularised by Neumann (1957) and Radovan (1975), and Austed undertook important work on histological changes in 1982.
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