Chris is planning his stag party. He knows the average number of cans of lager a person is likely to drink. From that he calculates the number of cans he will need to buy, and in turn the costs involved. During this complex mathematical calculation, he manipulates numbers in his memory.
Which of the following types of memory is he most likely to be using?
D. Short-term memory (referred to by some psychologists as working memory) is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 20 to 30 seconds. This duration can be increased by rehearsing. The short-term memory, classically, is also thought to have a capacity of storing seven plus or minus two items. Because of this limited capacity, improving short-term memory storage requires a process called chunking, where identical data are grouped strategically to constitute a single chunk or item. Baddeley proposed an architecture for working memory. According to him, working memory involves three main components: a central executive, two ‘slave’ systems (the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketch pad), and an episodic buffer. The central executive coordinates the slave systems; the phonological loop contains a phonological store and an articulatory control process and is responsible for inner speech and rehearsing; the visuospatial sketch pad is responsible for setting up and manipulating mental images; the episodic buffer integrates and manipulates material in working memory. A sensory memory store holds a large amount of incoming perceptual information for a very short time, usually a fraction of a second before it can be processed. This store for visual items is called iconic memory and for auditory information is called echoic memory. Sensory memories have a lot of content and are of very brief duration.
A college student who last swam when he was 12 years old is surprised by his ability to swim when pushed into the pool during a party.
Which of the following cognitive capacity could explain the above phenomenon?
A. Procedural memory is a type of memory wherein the knowledge of how to do things (procedures or skills, e.g. swim, ride a bike, typing, etc.) is stored. It may not be conscious. It is not easily communicable and practical demonstration is required. Declarative memory is something we are consciously aware of when we acquire it and we are able to communicate it to another person using language. Episodic memory is a declarative memory for events which can be recalled, for example remembering what one did last summer. It is defined by a specific time scale. Semantic memory is abstract knowledge retained irrespective of how or when it was acquired, for example ‘oceans are large bodies of water’. There is no time element attached to semantic memory.
A student preparing for a physics test learned the definitions of the following terms an hour before the test in this order: Hubble’s law, gravity wave, fusion, special relativity, string theory, and M theory.
Which of the following definitions is he likely to forget?
A. The serial position effect occurs when people show better recall for items at the beginning and the end of a list compared to those at the middle. This effect includes two components – the primacy effect, which occurs when items near the beginning of the list are recalled better than other items, and the recency effect, which occurs when items at the end are recalled better than other items.
The phase of human sexual response that occurs after desire is called:
D. The stages of a normal male sexual response are desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution. This is called the DEOR cycle. Traditionally it has also been described as the EPOR cycle, that is excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Sexual dysfunction can occur due to problems in any of the stages. Depression can lead to a loss of desire. Problems in the excitement phase can lead to erectile dysfunction; problems in the third stage can lead to premature ejaculation.
According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory, at the times of natural disasters which of the following will be the most appropriate intervention?
A. According to Maslow, human needs are arranged in a hierarchy. People must satisfy their basic needs before they can satisfy higher needs. Individuals usually progress upwards when their basic needs are relatively satisfied, but may regress back to lower levels. This is especially evident at times of huge natural disasters such as Tsunami or hurricanes. In order of needs, Maslow considered:
The latter is the individual’s need to fulfill his/her maximum potential. Other therapies as mentioned in the question are pointless when disaster strikes, unless food and shelter needs are met at least partially.
© 2010-2030 Your Doctor - Dr.Khalil Al-Yousifi - Kuwait - Contact Us