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Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)

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Category: Urology--->Urolithiasis
Page: 3

Question 11#Print Question

Regarding flexible ureteroscopes the following is true:

a. They are routinely used in the treatment of patients with lower ureteric stones
b. Of single-use flexible ureteroscopes, only the fibre-optic variety are currently available
c. The working channel is usually 2.8 F
d. Digital scopes may limit access to the kidney due to their larger tip size
e. The maximum deflection available is 180°–180°


Question 12#Print Question

The following are acceptable first-line treatments for a 1.5 cm renal pelvic stone in a patient with a normal contralateral kidney, except: 

a. ESWL
b. Flexible ureteroscopy with stent insertion
c. Flexible ureteroscopy without stent insertion
d. PCNL
e. Laparoscopic or open pyelolithotomy


Question 13#Print Question

The following are true of non-metallic ureteric stents, except:

a. They may encrust within a few weeks in patients with cystinuria and in pregnancy
b. They may be inserted to relieve obstruction in patients with pyonephrosis secondary to a proximal ureteric stone
c. Complications include encrustation and ureteric reflux
d. Indwell time should not exceed six months
e. Alpha-blocker medication has been shown to reduce stent symptoms


Question 14#Print Question

Enteric (secondary) hyperoxaluria can occur as a result of the following, except:

a. Insufficient dietary calcium intake
b. Intake of high doses of ascorbic acid
c. Increased occurrence of oxalatedegrading bacteria such as Oxalobacter formigenes
d. Inflammatory bowel disease
e. Intoxication with ethylene glycol


Question 15#Print Question

The following are true of extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptors, except:

a. The Dornier HM1 lithotriptor, developed in 1980, was the first lithotripter to be used to treat renal calculi in vivo
b. The Stortz Modulith® is an example of a electromagnetic lithotripter, where magnetic energy is applied to crystals to generate the shockwave
c. Electrohydraulic lithotriptors often incorporate an angulated hemispherical dish to focus shock waves created by an underwater spark gap
d. Piezoelectric lithotriptors utilise multiple ceramic crystals arranged around a hemispherical dish
e. The Dornier HM3 lithotriptor, the first commercial device, required immersion of the fully anaesthetised patient in a water bath




Category: Urology--->Urolithiasis
Page: 3 of 4