The most common cause of urinary retention after hernia repair is:
The most common cause of urinary retention after hernia repair is general anesthesia, which is routine in laparoscopic hernia repairs. Among 880 patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair with local anesthesia only 0.2% developed urinary retention, whereas the rate of urinary retention was 13% among 200 patients undergoing repair with general or spinal anesthesia. Other risk factors for postoperative urinary retention include pain, narcotic analgesia, and perioperative bladder distention. Initial treatment of urinary retention requires decompression of the bladder with short-term catheterization. Patients will generally require an overnight admission and trial of normal voiding before discharge. Failure to void normally requires reinsertion of the catheter for up to a week. Chronic requirement of a urinary catheter is rare, although older patients may require prolonged catheterization.
The outcome found more commonly with TAPP repair compared with TEP repair is:
Although controversy persists regarding the utility of TEP versus TAPP, reviews to date find no significant differences in operative duration, length of stay, time to recovery, or short-term recurrence rate between the two approaches. In TAPP repair, the risk of intra-abdominal injury is higher than in TEP repair. This finding prompted the International Endohernia Society (IEHS) to recommend that TAPP should only be attempted by surgeons with sufficient experience. A Cochrane systematic review found that rates of port -site hernias and visceral injuries were higher for the TAPP technique, whereas TEP may be associated with a higher rate of conversion to an alternative approach; however, neither finding was sufficiently compelling to recommend one technique over the other.
The ratio of inguinal hernias to femoral hernias is:
Approximately 75% of abdominal wall hernias occur in the groin. The lifetime risk of inguinal hernia is 27% in men and 3% in women. Of inguinal hernia repairs, 90% are performed in men and 10% in women. The incidence of inguinal hernias in men has a bimodal distribution, with peaks before the first year of age and after age 40. Abramson demonstrated the age dependence of inguinal hernias in 1978. Those between 25 and 34 years had a lifetime prevalence rate of 15%, whereas those aged 75 years and over had a rate of 47% (Table below). Approximately 70% offemoral hernia repairs are performed in women; however, inguinal hernias are five times more common than femoral hernias. The most common subtype of groin hernia in men and women is the indirect inguinal hernia.
Inguinal hernia prevalence by age:
The high incidence of inguinal hernias in preterm babies is most often due to:
Inguinal hernias may be congenital or acquired. Most adult inguinal hernias are considered acquired defects in the abdominal wall although collagen studies have demonstrated a heritable predisposition. A number of studies have attempted to delineate the precise causes of inguinal hernia formation; however, the best-characterized risk factor is weakness in the abdominal wall musculature (Table below). Congenital hernias, which make up the majority of pediatric hernias, can be considered an impedance of normal development, rather than an acquired weakness. During the normal course of development, the testes descend from the intra-abdominal space into the scrotum in the third trimester. Their descent is preceded by the gubernaculum and a diverticulum of peritoneum, which protrudes through the inguinal canal and becomes the processus vaginalis. Between 36 and 40 weeks of gestation, the processus vaginalis closes and eliminates the peritoneal opening at the internal inguinal ring. Failure of the peritoneum to close results in a patent processus vaginalis (PPV), hence the high incidence of indirect inguinal hernias in preterm babies. Children with congenital indirect inguinal hernias will present with a PPV; however, a patent processus does not necessarily indicate an inguinal hernia (Fig. below). In a study of nearly 600 adults undergoing general laparoscopy, bilateral inspection revealed that 12% had PPV. None of these patients had clinically significant symptoms of a groin hernia. In a group of 300 patients undergoing unilateral laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, 12% were found to have a contralateral PPV, which was associated with a fourfold 5-year incidence of inguinal hernia.
Presumed causes of groin herniation:
Varying degrees of closure of the processus vaginal is (PV). A. Closed PV. B. Minimally patent PV. C. Moderately patent PV. D. Scrotal hernia.
Injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve results in:
Other chronic pain syndromes include local nerve entrapment, meralgia paresthetica, and osteitis pubis. At greatest risk of entrapment are the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves in anterior repairs and the genitofemoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves in laparoscopic repairs. Clinical manifestations of nerve entrapment mimic acute neuropathic pain, and they occur with a dermatomal distribution. Injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve results in meralgia paresthetica, a condition characterized by persistent paresthesias of the lateral thigh. Initial treatment of nerve entrapment consists of rest, ice, NSAIDs, physical therapy, and possible local corticosteroid and anesthetic injection. Osteitis pubis is characterized by inflammation of the pubic symphysis and usually presents as medial groin or symphyseal pain that is reproduced by thigh adduction. Avoiding the pubic periosteum when placing sutures and tacks reduces the risk of developing osteitis pubis. CT scan or MRI excludes hernia recurrence, and bone scan is confirmatory for the diagnosis. Initial treatment is identical to that of nerve entrapment; however, if pain remains intractable, orthopedic surgery consultation should be sought for possible bone resection and curettage. Irrespective of treatment, the condition often takes 6 months to resolve.
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