Which of the following is true concerning urolithiasis?
Urolithiasis, or urinary calculus disease, may affect up to 10% of the population over the course of a lifetime. Calculi are crystalline aggregates of one or more components, most commonly calcium oxalate. Computed tomography (CT) scans will demonstrate all calculi except those composed of crystalline-excreted indinavir, an antiretroviral medication. For this reason, noncontrast CT scans have become the study of choice to evaluate for urolithiasis. Patients with recurrent stones will benefit from examination of stone composition and 24-hour urine metabolic workup to determine the underlying etiology. Better hydration is useful for all etiologies. Additionally, most patients will benefit from alkalization of the urine (eg, potassium citrate).
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