Which of the following is INCORRECT concerning the anatomy of the penis?
The corpora cavernosum are the paired, cylinder-like structures that are the main erectile bodies of the penis. The corpora cavernosum consist of a tough outer layer called the tunica albuginea and spongy, sinusoidal tissue inside that fills with blood to result in erection. The two corpora cavernosum have numerous vascular interconnections, so they function as one compartment. Surrounding all three bodies of the penis are the outer dartos fascia and the inner Buck fascia.
Which of the following is true about bladder cancer?
For patients who have disease invading into bladder muscle (T2), immediate (within 3 months of diagnosis) cystectomy with extended lymph node dissection offers the best chance of survival. Patients with limited lymph node involvement may be cured with surgery alone. Patients have multiple reconstructive options, including continent and noncontinent urinary diversions. The orthotopic neobladder has emerged as a popular urinary diversion for patients without urethral involvement. This diversion type involves the detubularization of a segment of bowel, typically distal ileum, which is then refashioned into a pouch that is anastomosed to the proximal urethra (neobladder) or to the skin (continent cutaneous diversion). Patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (confined to the bladder mucosa or submucosa) can be managed with transurethral resection alone and adjuvant intravesical (instilled into the bladder) chemotherapy/immunotherapy.
Which of the following is true concerning testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy in men between 15 and 35 years. Chest and abdominal imaging must be performed to evaluate for evidence of metastasis. The most common site of spread is the retroperitoneal lymph nodes extending from the common iliac vessels to the renal vessels.
Which of the following statements about kidney cancer is FALSE?
Renal tumors are usually solid, but they also can be cystic. Most cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are sporadic, but many hereditary forms have been described. Up to 20 to 30% of patients may present with metastatic disease, in which case, surgical de bulking can improve survival, as shown in randomized controlled trials. Up to 10% of RCC invades the lumen of the renal vein or vena cava. The degree of venous extension directly impacts the surgical approach. Patients with thrombus below the level of the liver can be managed with crossclamping above and below the thrombus and extraction from a cavotomy at the insertion of the renal vein.
Which of the following is FALSE concerning carcinoma of the prostate?
The American Urological Association has advised for screening for men 55 to 69 years of age. The most common site of spread of prostate cancer is the pelvic lymph nodes and bone. Radical prostatectomy is associated with early incontinence and erectile dysfunction (ED) (depending on nerve sparing). Incontinence improves significantly with time, with < 1% of men in experienced hands suffering severe long-term problems with urinary control.
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