Which of the following are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP):
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is associated with benign extracolonic manifestations that may be useful in identifying new cases, including congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, epidermoid cysts, and osteomas. In addition to colorectal cancer, patients with FAP are at risk for upper intestinal neoplasms (gastric and duodenal polyps, duodenal and periampullary cancer), hepatobiliary tumors (hepatoblastoma, pancreatic cancer, and cholangiocarcinoma), thyroid carcinomas, desmoid tumors, and medulloblastomas.
Which mutated gene malignant disease association is correct:
MEN2 syndrome is caused by gain of function mutations in the RET gene. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is associated with mutation ofTP53. Mutations in pl6 is associated with melanomas, as well as cancers of the pancreas, esophagus, head and neck, stomach, breast, and colon. BRCAI is associated with breast and ovarian carcinoma.
Risk for invasive breast cancer development is increased for each factor EXCEPT:
Risk factors for the development of breast cancer is summarized in Table below. Previous breast biopsies are associated with an increase in risk of invasive breast cancer. No previous breast biopsy confers the baseline risk.
ASsessment of risk for invasive breast cancer:
Routine ongoing cancer screening is recommended for which of the following malignancies?
On the occasion of a periodic health examination, the cancer related checkup should include examination for cancers of the thyroid, testicles, ovaries, lymph nodes, oral cavity, and skin, as well as health counseling about tobacco, sun exposure, diet and nutrition, risk factors, sexual practices, and environmental and occupational exposures.
Depending on the tumor, acceptable approaches to biopsy include any of the following EXCEPT:
A sample of a lesion can be obtained with a needle or with an open incisional or excisional biopsy specimen. Core biopsy specimen, such as fine-needle aspiration, is relatively safe and can be performed either by direct palpation ( eg, a breast mass or a soft tissue mass) or can be guided by an imaging study (eg, stereotactic core biopsy specimen of the breast). Open biopsy specimens have the advantage of providing more tissue for histologic evaluation and the disadvantage of being an operative procedure. Incisional biopsy specimens are reserved for very large lesions in which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made by needle biopsy specimen. Excisional biopsy specimens are performed for lesions for which either core biopsy specimen is not possible or the results are nondiagnostic.
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