The most common cause of acquired mitral stenosis is:
Acquired mitral stenosis (MS) is most often caused by rheumatic fever, with approximately 60% of patients with pure MS presenting with a positive clinical history of rheumatic heart disease. Rarely, other conditions can cause obstruction to filling of the LV, mimicking MS. Acquired causes of mitral valve obstruction include left atrial myxoma, ball valve thrombus, mucopolysaccharidosis, previous chest radiation, and severe annular calcification.
What valvular lesion is most commonly found in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?
The most common cause of isolated aortic insufficiency (AI) in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) is aortic root disease, and represents over 50% of such patients in some studies. Other common causes of AI include congenital abnormalities of the aortic valve, such as bicuspid aortic valve, calcific degeneration, rheumatic disease, infective endocarditis, systemic hypertension, myxomatous degeneration, dissection of the ascending aorta, and Marfan syndrome. Less common causes of AI include traumatic injuries to the aortic valve, ankylosing spondylitis, syphilitic aortitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteogenesis imperfecta, giant cell aortitis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Reiter syndrome, discrete subaortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defects with prolapse of an aortic cusp. Although most of these lesions produce chronic aortic insufficiency, rarely acute severe aortic regurgitation can result, often with devastating consequences.
Tricuspid stenosis is:
Acquired tricuspid valve (TV) disease can be classified as either organic or functional, and affects approximately 0.8% of the general population. Tricuspid stenosis is almost always a result of organic disease, namely rheumatic heart disease and endocarditis. In the case of rheumatic disease, tricuspid stenosis with or without associated insufficiency is invariably associated with mitral valve disease. Other less common causes of obstruction to right atrial emptying include congenital tricuspid atresia, right atrial tumors, and endomyocardial fibrosis.
The most common cardiac tumor is:
Cardiac myxomas are the most common cardiac tumor and are characterized by several distinguishing features. About 75% of the time, they arise from the interatrial septum near the fossa ovalis in the left atrium. Most others will develop in the right atrium, but, less commonly, they can arise from valvular surfaces and the walls of other cardiac chambers. Macroscopically, these tumors are pedunculated with a gelatinous consistency, and the surface may be smooth (65%), villous, or friable. Size varies greatly with these tumors and ranges from 1 to 15 em in diameter. Internally, myxomas are heterogeneous and often contain hemorrhage, cysts, necrosis, or calcification. Histologically, these tumors contain cells that arise from a multi potent mesenchyme and are contained within a mucopolysaccharide stroma.
The most common primary cardiac tumor in children is:
In children, rhabdomyomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor, whereas fibromas are the most commonly resected cardiac tumor. Rhabdomyomas are myocardial hamartomas that are often multicentric in the ventricles. About 50% of cases are associated with tuberous sclerosis, and while resection is occasionally necessary, most disappear spontaneously. Fibromas are congenital lesions that one-third of the time are found in children younger than 1 year. These tumors, conversely, are ordinarily solitary lesions found in the inner interventricular septum, and they may present with heart failure, cyanosis, arrhythmias, syncopal episodes, chest pain, or sudden cardiac death.
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