Which one of the following is considered a nonimmunologic-related complication of immunosuppression in face transplantation?
Nephrotoxicity. Immunosuppression-associated risks are divided into two groups: immunologic and non-immunologic. Immunologic-related risks include under-immunosuppression (acute rejection) and overimmunosuppression (opportunistic infections and malignancies). Nonimmunologic risks are primarily drug-induced toxicities (e.g. cardiovascular, renal, diabetes). Chronic rejection is considered to be due to a combination of the above two factors.
Split ear lobes are caused by all except:
Which one of the following immunosuppressives is believed to promote nerve regeneration in face transplantation?
Tacrolimus. Tacrolimus is believed to promote nerve regeneration, and therefore has an advantage in composite tissue transplantation of the hands and face, over solid organ transplantation.
The progression rate of oral leukoplakia to invasive cancer within at least 12 years is:
None of the above. The progression rate to cancer is variably quoted ranging from 2.7% to 17.5%.
1. Gnepp DR. Diagnostic surgical pathology of the head and neck, 2nd ed. SaundersElsevier, 2009: 9.
Which of the following is the most common malignancy due to immunosuppression in transplant recipients?
Skin cancer. Skin cancer is by far the commonest malignancy in organ transplant recipients. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is reported to be 65 to 250 times higher and that of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) ten times higher in renal transplant recipients when compared with the general population. Other frequently seen cancers are lymphoproliferative disorders, cancers of the pharynx, larynx and oral cavity, and Kaposi sarcoma.
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