The following are histopathological terms correctly matched with their meanings:
Parakeratosis: where nucleated cells are found in the superficial epidermis. Parakeratosis is where nuclei of keratinocytes persist as they rise into the horny layer of the skin; it occurs normally in the epithelium of mucous membranes. When it occurs on the external skin it constitutes a lesion. Maturation is where naevus cells migrate into the dermis. Peripheral pallisading is classically seen in basal carcinoma and occasionally ‘basi-squamous’ carcinoma (a controversial diagnosis). Neither erythroplakia nor leukoplakia are histopathological terms - they denote clinical appearances, although they are both correctly defined.
Features of Gorlin’s syndrome do not include:
Hypospadias. All the others are features of Gorlin’s syndrome except hypospadias. Additional features include macrocephaly, distinct facial features, frontal bossing, palmar and plantar skin pits, cleft lip and palate, and ectopic calcification, e.g. falx cerebri.
Which of the following is incorrect about cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma?
It is more common than BCC. A is incorrect. BCC is approximately 2.5 times more common than SCC.
Which of the following statements is correct?
All but one of the motor branches of the sciatic nerve arises from its medial side, making the lateral side the safest side to dissect along. The only motor branch to arise from the lateral border of the sciatic nerve is the branch to the short head of biceps and so it is safest to dissect along the lateral side. The hamstrings are semimembranosus, semitendinosus and the long head of biceps femoris (only). They extend the hip and flex the knee. The sciatic nerve is deep in the angle between gluteus maximus and the lateral border of the long head of biceps. The short head of biceps is not considered part of the hamstrings because it does not arise from the ischium and has no action on the hip joint.
For a melanoma of the same depth which of the following has a worse prognosis?
None of the above. Depth is an independent risk factor.
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