In elderly trauma patients, injuries from falls accounts for about 20% of etiologies. The management of these patients is complicated by all of the following factors EXCEPT:
Elderly trauma victims are more likely to have underlying organ-specific limitations and medication use which complicates resuscitation and hemostasis. They are also more likely to be undertriaged and treated at non-level 1 trauma centers.
Minimally invasive approaches to surgical treatment have been shown to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in elderly patients for all of the following EXCEPT:
Minimally invasive approaches to surgical treatment have dramatically decreased mortality and morbidity rates in elderly subjects for aortic aneurysm repair, cholecystectomy, and colorectal surgery. Laparoscopic techniques or endovascular methods have enabled the surgical correction of multiple abdominal conditions with far less morbidity in the elderly than open surgical techniques. Neck surgery is usually well tolerated by elderly patients.
The goals of palliative surgery include all of the following EXCEPT:
Palliative surgery is directed at preserving quality of life, avoiding devastating complications of disease, and relief of symptoms. It is not intended to alter the course of a disease process but is considered when surgical treatment can extend a meaningful existence for the patient.
The goals of ethical decision making in the elderly patient include all of the following EXCEPT:
The primacy of the patient and his/her decisions regarding their own care is of greatest importance in the ethical care of the elderly surgical patient. A surrogate decision maker may be appointed by the patient, but that individual should decide medical decisions based on what they believe would be the choice of the patient.
The combined recommendations of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) and the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) have provide best practice guidelines for the preoperative evaluation of elderly surgical patients. These recommendations are required standards for training programs in which of the following specialties?
The combined recommendations of American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) and the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) have been endorsed by all training programs under the aegis of the American College of Surgeons (ACS).
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