According to Adler, a sense of inadequacy and weakness that is universal and inborn is called:
A. Adler coined the term inferiority complex which is a sense of inadequacy and weakness that is universal and inborn. Masculine protest is the tendency to move from a passive, feminine role to a masculine, active role. A child’s self esteem may be compromised by a physical defect; this phenomenon is called organ inferiority. According to Adler’s birth order theory the firstborn child reacts with anger to the birth of siblings and struggles against giving up the powerful position of being the only child. The second-born child must always compete with the firstborn. This apparently results in lifelong influences on character and lifestyle. All the above terms, including individual psychology, were proposed by Alfred Adler.
Which of the following is NOT a concept proposed by Melanie Klein?
B. Reaction formation is one of many Freudian defences. Kleinian defences can be remembered using the mnemonic (SIPDOG – splitting, introjection, projective identification, denial, omnipotence, and grandiosity). According to Klein, projection and introjection are the primary defence operations in the first few months of life. Soon after birth and thereafter, the infant experiences a fear that he is falling apart. This fear of fragmenting or disintegration is central to further Kleinian processes. To deal with this fear, the infant resorts to splitting, introjection, and projection. All events and perceptions are schemed into good and bad elements (splitting); the good part gets introjected, while bad part is projected onto the mother leading to persecutory anxiety. At this stage, the infant is in a paranoid–schizoid position, where the capacity to integrate varied experiences into unified concept is lacking. Soon the baby comes to know that the mother he loved (when feeding) and the mother he hated (when hurt) are one and the same. Now the infant becomes concerned that he might destroy the mother due to his aggressive impulses, and the infant is said to be in a grief-like depressive position. Projective identification is a Kleinian defence mechanism where unwanted feelings are projected to the other person, and he/she is made to feel and act accordingly.
With which of the following developmental phases is Margaret Mahler associated?
B. Margaret Mahler described the process by which children develop a separate identity from their mothers. She called this the theory of separation individuation (SI). Stages of separation individuation are:
Avoiding the awareness of some painful aspect of reality by negating sensory data is called:
C. This is denial. The defence of denial is usually an unconscious process (I love that man becomes I do not love that man). Projection is where specific wishes, impulses, and aspects of self are imagined to be located in some other object external to oneself (e.g. a miser calling others ‘misers’). Projection is thought to be involved in the formation of persecutory delusions. Repression is expelling or withholding an idea or feeling from consciousness. Primary repression is when the idea has never reached consciousness at all. Secondary repression is when it has reached the conscious level at some time in the past, but is now not available for conscious processing. Suppression is consciously or semiconsciously postponing attention and response to an impulse or conflict. This is a mature defence mechanism. Reaction formation is the transformation of an unacceptable impulse to the very opposite (I love that man becomes I hate that man).
Which of the following is NOT a mature defence mechanism?
A. Isolation is a neurotic defence. It is separating an idea from the emotion that accompanies it. Defence mechanisms can be psychologically healthy or maladaptive, though their primary aim is to reduce a psychological conflict. Psychologically healthy mechanisms can be grouped as mature defences. Various mature defence mechanisms include sublimation, altruism, humour, suppression, and anticipation. Altruism is using constructive service to provide for others without any conscious direct or indirect benefits. Humour is the process of using comedy to express feelings and thoughts without personal discomfort. Anticipation is realistically planning for a predicted inner discomfort. For example, a man with a terminal illness prepares his advance directives. Sublimation is achieving gratification by altering a socially objectionable aim or objective to a socially acceptable one. For example training as a surgeon if you have a desire to cut and make others bleed!
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