Case studies have been traditionally useful in studying brain–behaviour relationships. In one of such case study Phineas Gage, a railway worker, sustained damage to which of the following brain areas?
D. Phineas Gage was a railway workman whose frontal lobe (especially the ventromedial prefrontal area) was accidentally drilled out by an iron bar. He survived the terrible accident but had significant personality and behavioural change, stimulating interest in studying functions of the frontal lobe.
Lithium was used in which of the following medical illnesses before being rediscovered for mania?
A. Lithium was brought to the attention of psychiatric practice in 1949 by Australian, John Cade, who highlighted its mood-stabilizing effect. Lithium water was a popular ‘tonic for aches and pains’ and was used for gout before this discovery.
Which one of the following is the oldest treatment method employed to cure mental illness?
C. Trephination refers to drilling holes in skulls to release evil spirit that were believed to haunt the insane. This practice is noted even in prehistoric skulls dated 6500 BC. Electroconvulsion was introduced by Cerletti and Bini in the early part of the twentieth century, while Moniz proposed neurosurgical methods to treat psychiatric disorders.
Durkheim is a name associated with the study of which of the following phenomena?
E. Durkheim described anomic, altruistic, and egoistic suicide. In anomie, the patient feels let down by society and fails to follow norms. In altruistic suicide, over involvement with a particular social group leads to significant alteration in one’s self identity and the suicide is for the group cause rather than personal cause, for example hara-kiri of a soldier. Egoistic suicide refers to those suicides in people who are not strongly integrated into any social group, for example lack of family integration in unmarried persons.
Which of the following is a correct match with respect to diagnostic scales in psychiatry?
B. Barnes’ Akathisia Rating Scale is used to measure akathisia, a side-effect of antipsychotics characterized by both subjective and, later, objective restlessness. Folstein described MMSE in a seminal paper; Andreasen devised the Thought Language and Communication scale to measure formal thought disturbance; Kay’s PANSS (positive and negative symptom scale) can measure negative symptoms; Hare is a name associated with a psychopathy checklist used by forensic services.
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