Which one of the following is regarded as an illustrative case for classical conditioning in phobia?
B. Little Albert learnt to avoid rabbits after a loud noise induced fear in him whenever he played with a white rat. This fear later generalized to white rabbits (Watson and Rayner 1920). Anna O was a patient with ‘hysteria’ treated by Freud and Breuer. Ratman was also a patient of Freud who had OCD, while Schreber had delusional disorder.
Who among the following used the term agoraphobia to describe a category of anxiety disorder?
C. Robert Burton wrote ‘The Anatomy of Melancholy’ in which some description of symptoms suggestive of agoraphobia is seen together with the account of depressive illness. In 1871, Carl Otto Westphal coined the term agoraphobia to describe several of his patients who experienced severe anxiety when walking through streets or open squares. Schneider proposed first-rank symptoms; Jung belonged to the psychoanalytic school. Anna Freud, Freud’s daughter, was involved in classifying defence mechanisms and also in child psychoanalysis.
Freud is regarded as the father of psychoanalysis. Which one of the following techniques was developed by Freud for his own clinical practice?
C. Free association was a popular technique used by Freudian analysts. Having learnt hypnosis from Charcot, neurologist-turned-psychoanalyst Freud developed the method of free association in which patients were encouraged to speak about their thoughts without distraction or censure. This was intended to be a therapeutic method, though later adapted largely as an interview technique. Narcoanalysis involves using barbiturates as truth serum. Dissociation is a psychological mechanism and not a clinical technique. Mesmerism or animal magnetism was developed by Anton Mesmer.
Phrenology refers to the study of which of the following concepts?
D. Phrenology was a popular theory which claimed to determine personality and diagnose/ predict mental symptoms using the shape of the skull. It was developed by the German physician Gall and was very popular in the mid 1800s. Phrenologists used their bare hands and palms to feel for fissures or dents in their patients’ skulls. With this information, the phrenologist would report on the character of the patient; its popularity reached extremes when marriages and recruitment were advised by phrenologists.
Schizophrenia was coined by Bleuler in 1911. The literal meaning of the term schizophrenia is:
A. The term ‘schizophrenia’ stands for split personality. Even today this is confused with more dramatic multiple personality disorder by some of the lay public. The term was coined by Eugene Bleuler in 1911. It is derived from the Greek words ‘schizo’ (split) and ‘phrene’ (mind). Bleuler intended to use the name in order to capture the functional dissociation between personality, thinking, memory, and perception in a patient with schizophrenia.
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