Which of the following is true regarding breast cancer metastasis?
At approximately the 20th cell doubling, breast cancers acquire their own blood supply (neovascularization). Thereafter, cancer cells may be shed directly into the systemic venous blood to seed the pulmonary circulation via the axillary and intercostal veins or the vertebral column via Batson plexus of veins, which courses the length of the vertebral column. These cells are scavenged by natural killer lymphocytes and macrophages. Sixty percent of the women who develop distant metastases will do so within 60 months of treatment.
All of the following are true concerning breast LCIS EXCEPT:
LCIS originates from the terminal duct lobular units and develops only in the female breast. Cytoplasmic mucoid globules are a distinctive cellular feature. The frequency of LCIS in the general population cannot be reliably determined because it usually presents as an incidental finding. The average age at diagnosis is 45 years, which is approximately 15 to 25 years younger than the age at diagnosis for invasive breast cancer.
Which of the following concerning breast cancer staging is correct?
Factors that determine the type of therapy offered to patients after diagnosis of breast cancer include all of the following EXCEPT:
Once a diagnosis ofbreast cancer is made, the type of therapy offered to a breast cancer patient is determined by the stage of the disease, the biologic subtype, and the general health status of the individual.
Which of the following statements about the management of distal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is true?
Women with DCIS and evidence of extensive disease (>4 em of disease or disease in more than one quadrant) usually require mastectomy. For women with limited disease, lumpectomy and radiation therapy are generally recommended. For nonpalpable DCIS, needle localization or other image-guided techniques are used to guide the surgical resection. Specimen mammography is performed to ensure that all visible evidence of cancer is excised. Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is considered for DCIS patients with estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive disease. The gold standard against which breast conservation therapy for DCIS is evaluated is mastectomy. Women treated with mastectomy have local recurrence and mortality rates of <2%.
© 2010-2030 Your Doctor - Dr.Khalil Al-Yousifi - Kuwait - Contact Us