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Category: Urology--->Urolithiasis
Page: 4

Question 16#Print Question

The following are true for renal tubular acidosis (RTA) except:

a. Type 1 RTA is the failure of H+ secretion in the distal nephron tubules
b. Type 1 RTA is the failure of H+ secretion is characterised by hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis (normal anion gap)
c. Type 1 RTA typically form calcium phosphate stones
d. Treatment of distal RTA should not be undertaken with potassium citrate, which has the effect of increasing urine pH
e. The ammonium chloride acidification test with a urinary pH > 5.5 being indicative of RTA


Question 17#Print Question

The following are true of hypercalciuria and its relation to stone formation, except:

a. It is often associated with calcium oxalate dihydrate stones
b. Can be treated with a thiazide diuretic
c. Is defined as the excretion of >5.5 mmol/24 hours of urinary calcium in a male
d. Can be associated with excessive salt intake
e. Can arise as a result of primary hyperparathyroidism


Question 18#Print Question

Which of the following is the most important factor in uric acid stone formation?

a. Low urinary pH
b. High urinary pH
c. Hyperuricaemia
d. Hyperuricosuria
e. Low oral intake


Question 19#Print Question

The following antibiotics are safe in one or all trimesters of pregnancy, except:

a. Co-amoxiclav
b. Trimethoprim
c. Nitrofurantoin
d. Cefalexin
e. Gentamicin


Question 20#Print Question

The most common type of urinary stone is:

a. Calcium oxalate
b. Calcium phosphate
c. Uric acid
d. Infection
e. Cystine




Category: Urology--->Urolithiasis
Page: 4 of 4