Regarding hemifacial atrophy, which is correct?
Is best monitored using thermography. Thermography is the best modality to monitor the activity of the disease. Hemifacial atrophy is also referred to as Romberg’s disease or Parry-Romberg disease. It is unilateral and sporadic with an onset usually between early childhood and late teens/ early twenties. A classic ‘coup de sabre’ deformity is occasionally seen, and other atrophic changes involve the eye, hair, skin, soft tissue and bone. Treatment options include fat transfer, free or pedicled flaps including fascial flaps - classically parascapular, scapular, omental and ALT. Surgery should be delayed until the disease is no longer active.
With regards to hypospadias surgery:
Meatal advancement with glanuloplasty incorporated (MAGPI) and Snodgrass (tubularised incised plate [TIP]) repairs are BOTH single-stage repairs.
During assessment of velopharyngeal incompetence, the following patterns of velopharyngeal closure can be seen on videofluoroscopy:
None of the above. These patterns of velopharyngeal closure are seen when assessed by nasendoscopy. This procedure is undertaken with the patient awake to enable co-operation and assessment. In general, coronal patterns of velopharyngeal closure are best treated with sphincter pharyngoplasty whereas sagittal patterns are best treated with posterior pharyngeal flaps.
A harlequin orbit is diagnostic of:
Coronal craniosynostosis. This is due to dysplasia of the sphenoid bone deforming the middle cranial fossa and causing proptosis.
Are more common in white races than black races.
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